I. Moral Development (read more)
A. Kohlberg's stages (sample dilemma: Heinz and the druggist)
1. Preconventional: Determined by consequences
Stage 1: Punishment orientation
Stage 2: Pleasure-seeking orientation
2. Conventional: Desire to conform to expectations and socially accepted rules
Stage 3: Good boy/good girl orientation (obtain social approval)
Stage 4: Authority orientation (uphold law, order, and authority by following rules)
3. Postconventional: Self accepted moral priniciples (image
of 3 stages)
Stage 5: Social contract orientation
Stage 6: Morality of individual principles
B. Carol Gilligan's response: Kohlberg's theory is male-focused!
1. Socialization => boys more likely to have a morality of justice
2. Girls focus on caring and nurturance, rather than justice
3. Used a different set of moral dillemas: (e.g., "The
porcupine and the mole" story).
a. Gender differences not found
b. But Kohlberg's conceptualization of morality got expanded
C. Other criticisms
1. Correlated with behavior?
2. Culturally biased (e.g., individual morality over societal rules)
D. Practice applying Kohlberg's theory in a Solitaire-type