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R. CHRIS FRALEY | PUBLICATIONS

 Curriculum Vitae

Curriculum Vitae

 Reprint Requests

Some of the papers referenced below are available for download as PDF files. These files are password protected for copyright reasons. If you would like to access the PDFs for educational or research purposes, please e-mail me for the password. If you would like to request preprints of in press papers or other papers without download links, please e-mail me with the appropriate reference.

 Books

Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., & Kruger, R. F. (2007)(Eds.). Handbook of Research Methods in Personality Psychology. Guilford Press.

Fraley, R. C. (2004). How to conduct behavioral research over the Internet: A beginner's guide to HTML and CGI/Perl. New York: Guilford.
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 Published Research Articles & Chapters


 2014 or in press

Fraley, R. C., & Roisman, G. I. (in press). Do early caregiving experiences leave an enduring or transient mark on developmental adaptation?. Current Opinion in Psychology.

Fraley, R. C., Hudson, N. W., Heffernan, M. E., & Segal, N. (in press). Are adult attachment styles categorical or dimensional? A taxometric analysis of general and relationship-specific attachment orientations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Hudson, N. W., & Fraley, R. C. (in press). Volitional personality trait change: Can people choose to change their personality traits? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Raby, K. L., Roisman, G. I., Fraley, R. C., & Simpson, J. A. (in press). The enduring predictive significance of early sensitivity: Social and academic competence through age 32 years. Child Development.

Belsky, J., Newman, D. A., Widaman, K. F., Rodkin, P., Pluess, M., Fraley, R. C., Berry, D., Helm, J. L., & Roisman, G. I. (in press). Differential susceptibility to effects of maternal sensitivity? A study of candidate plasticity genes. Development and Psychopathology.

Brumbaugh, C. C., & Fraley, R. C. (in press). Too fast, too soon? An empirical investigation into rebound relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.

Grijalva, E., Harms, P. D., Newman, D. A., Gaddis, B., & Fraley, R. C. (in press). Narcissism and leadership: A meta-analytic review of linear and nonlinear relationships. Personnel Psychology.

Heffernan, M. E., & Fraley, R. C. (in press). How early experiences shape attraction, partner preferences, and attachment dynamics. In V. Zayas & C. Hazan (Eds.), Bases of adult attachment: From brain to mind to behavior. Springer.

Benet-Martínez, V., Donnellan, M. B., Fleeson, W., Fraley, R. C., Gosling, S. D., King, L. A., Robins, R. W., & Funder, D. C. (in press). Six visions for the future of personality psychology. In M. L. Cooper & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), Handbook of Personality Processes and Individual Differences. Washington DC, APA Press.

Hudson, N. W., & Fraley, R. C. (2014). Partner similarity matters for the insecure: Attachment orientations moderate the association between similarity in partners' personality traits and relationship satisfaction. Journal of Research in Personality, 53, 112-123.

Fraley, R. C., & Vazire, S. (2014). The N-pact factor: Evaluating the quality of empirical journals with respect to sample size and statistical power. PLoS ONE, 9(10): e109019. [article]

Fraley, R.C., & Roisman, G.I. (2014). Categories or dimensions? A taxometric analysis of the Adult Attachment Interview. In C. Booth-LaForce & G.I. Roisman (Eds.), The Adult Attachment Interview: Psychometrics, stability and change from infancy, and developmental origins. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79, 36-50.

Groh, A.M., Roisman, G.I., Booth-LaForce, C., Fraley, R.C., Owen, M.T., Cox, M.J., & Burchinal, M.R. (2014). Stability of attachment security from infancy to late adolescence. In C. Booth-LaForce & G.I. Roisman (Eds.), The Adult Attachment Interview: Psychometrics, stability and change from infancy, and developmental origins. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79, 51-66.

Roisman, G.I., Fraley, R.C., & Booth-LaForce, C. (2014). Pulling ourselves up by our bootstraps: A rejoinder to Van IJzendoorn and Bakermans-Kranenburg (2014). In C. Booth-LaForce & G.I. Roisman (Eds.), The Adult Attachment Interview: Psychometrics, stability and change from infancy, and developmental origins. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 79, 168-173.

Hudson, N. W., Fraley, R. C., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2014). Coregulation in romantic partners' attachment styles: A longitudinal investigation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 845-857.

Fraley, R. C., & Hudson, N. W. (2014). Review of 'Intensive longitudinal methods: An introduction to diary and experience sampling research'. Journal of Social Psychology, 154, 89-91.

 2013

Fraley, R. C. (2013). Attachment through the life course. In R. Biswas-Diener & E. Diener (Eds), Noba textbook series: Psychology. Champaign, IL: DEF Publishers. [Link]

Newman, D. A., Jones, K. S., Fraley, R. C., Lyon, J. S., & Mullaney, K. M. (2013). Why minority recruiting doesn't often work, and what can be done about it: Applicant qualifications and the 4-group model of targeted recruiting. In K. Y. T. Yu & D. M. Cable (Eds.) Oxford handbook of recruitment (pp. 492-526). New York: Oxford University Press.

Fraley, R. C., & Heffernan, M. E. (2013). Attachment and parental divorce: A test of the diffusion and sensitive period hypotheses. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39, 1199-1213. [PDF]

Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). Developmental mechanisms underlying the legacy of childhood experiences. Child Development Perspectives, 7, 149-154. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., Booth-LaForce, C., Owen, M. T., & Holland, A. S. (2013). Interpersonal and genetic origins of adult attachment styles: A longitudinal study from infancy to early adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104, 8817-838. [PDF]

Haltigan, J. D., Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). The predictive significance of early caregiving experiences for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology through mid-adolescence: Enduring or transient effects? Development and Psychopathology, 25, 209-221. [PDF]

Heffernan, M. E., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). Do early caregiving experiences shape what people find attractive in adulthood? Evidence from a study on parental age. Journal of Research in Personality, 47, 364-368. [PDF]

Chopik, W. J., Edelstein, R. S., & Fraley, R. C. (2013). From the cradle to the grave: Age differences in attachment from early adulthood to old age. Journal of Personality, 81, 171-183. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Roisman, G. I., & Haltigan, J. D. (2013). The legacy of early experiences in development: Formalizing alternative models of how early experiences are carried forward over time. Developmental Psychology, 49, 109-126. [PDF]

 2012

Fraley, R. C., Griffin, B. N., Belsky, J., & Roisman, G. I. (2012). Developmental antecedents of political ideology: A longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18. Psychological Science, 23(11), 1425-1431. [PDF]

Holland, A. S., Fraley, R. C., & Roisman, G. I. (2012). Attachment styles in dating couples: Predicting relationship functioning over time. Personal Relationships, 19, 234-246. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Tancredy, C. M. (2012). Twin and sibling attachment in a nationally representative sample. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 308-316. [PDF]

Roisman, G.I., & Fraley, R.C. (2012). A behavior-genetic study of the legacy of early caregiving experiences: Academic skills, social competence, and externalizing behavior in kindergarten. Child Development, 83, 728-742. [PDF]

Heffernan, M. E., Fraley, R. C., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2012). Attachment features and functions in romantic relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 29, 671-693.

Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2012). The legacy of early interpersonal experience. In J. B. Benson (Ed.), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (Vol. 42, pp. 79-112). Burlington: Academic Press. [PDF]

Roisman, G. I., Newman, D. A., Fraley, R. C., Haltigan, J. D., Groh, A. M., & Haydon, K. C. (2012). Distinguishing differential susceptibility from diathesis-stress: Recommendations for evaluating interaction effects. Development and Psychopathology, 24, 389-409. [PDF]

 2011

Fraley, R. C., Vicary, A. M., Brumbaugh, C. C., & Roisman, G. I. (2011). Patterns of stability in adult attachment: An empirical test of two models of continuity and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 101, 974-992. [PDF]

Haydon, K. C., Roisman, G. I., Marks, M. J., & Fraley, R. C. (2011). An empirically derived approach to the latent structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional convergent and discriminant validity evidence. Attachment & Human Development, 13, 503-524. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Heffernan, M. E., Vicary, A. M., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2011). The Experiences in Close Relationships-Relationship Structures questionnaire: A method for assessing attachment orientations across relationships. Psychological Assessment, 23, 615-625. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Marks, M. J. (2011). Pushing mom away: Embodied cognition and avoidant attachment. Journal of Research in Personality, 45, 243-246. [PDF]

 2010

Brumbaugh, C. C., & Fraley, R. C. (2010). Adult attachment and dating strategies: How do insecure people attract mates? Personal Relationships, 17, 599-614. [PDF]

Vicary, A. M., & Fraley, R. C. (2010). Student reactions to the shootings at Virginia Tech and Northern Illinois University: Does sharing grief and support over the Internet affect recovery? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1555-1563. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Marks, M. J. (2010). Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo: Does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1202-1212. [PDF]

Vicary, A. M., & Fraley, R. C. (2010). Captured by True Crime: Why are women drawn to tales of rape, murder, and serial killers? Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 81-86. [PDF]

 2009

Fraley, R. C., & Phillips, R. L. (2009). Self-report measures of adult attachment in clinical practice. In J. H. Obegi & E. Berant (Eds.), Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory (pp. 153-180). New York: Guilford.

 2008

Shaver, P. R., & Fraley, R. C. (2008). Attachment, Loss, and Grief: Bowlby's Views and Current Controversies In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Edition) (pp. 48-77). New York: Guilford Press.

Crowell, J., Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Measures of individual differences in adolescent and adult attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd Edition)(pp. 599-634). New York: Guilford Press.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Attachment theory and its place in contemporary personality research. In O. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (3rd Edition) (pp. 518-541). New York: Guilford Press.

Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2008). A behavior-genetic study of parenting quality, infant attachment security, and their covariation in a nationally representative sample. Developmental Psychology, 44, 831-839. [PDF]

 2007

Fraley, R. C. (2007). Attachment theory. In R. Baumeister & K. Vohs (eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Brumbaugh, C. C., & Fraley, R. C. (2007). The transference of attachment patterns: How parental and romantic relationships influence feelings toward novel people. Personal Relationships, 14, 513-530. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C. (2007). A connectionist approach to the organization and continuity of working models of attachment. Journal of Personality, 75, 1157-1180. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2007). Adult attachment and preemptive defenses: Converging evidence on the role of defensive exclusion at the level of encoding. Journal of Personality, 75, 1033-1050. [PDF]

Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., & Fraley, R. C. (2007). Voters' personality traits in presidential elections. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1199-1208. [PDF]

Caprara, G. V., Barbaranelli, C., Fraley, R. C., & Vecchione, M. (2007).The simplicity of political context: An annomolous replication. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 393-405.

Caprara, G. V., Vecchione, M., Barbaranelli, C., & Fraley, R. C. (2007). When likeness goes with liking: The case of political preference. Political Psychology, 28, 609-632. [PDF]

Marks, M. J., & Fraley, R. C. (2007) The impact of social interaction on the sexual double standard. Social Influence, 2, 29-54.

Vicary, A. M., Fraley, R. C. (2007). Choose your own adventure: Attachment dynamics in a simulated relationship. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1279-1291. [PDF]

Roisman, G. I., Fraley, R. C., & Belsky, J. (2007). A taxometric study of the Adult Attachment Interview. Developmental Psychology, 43, 675-686. [PDF]

Roisman, G.I., Holland, A., Fortuna, K., Fraley, R.C., Clausell, E., & Clarke, A. (2007). The Adult Attachment Interview and self-reports of attachment style: An empirical rapprochement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 678-697. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C. (2007). Using the Internet for personality research: What can be done, how to do it, and some concerns. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 130-148). New York: Guilford.

Fraley, R. C., & Marks, M. J. (2007). The null hypothesis significance testing debate and its implications for personality research. In R. W. Robins, R. C. Fraley, & R. F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 149-169). New York: Guilford. [PDF]

 2006

Roisman, G. I., & Fraley, R. C. (2006). The limits of genetic influence: A behavior-genetic analysis of infant-caregiver relationship quality and temperament. Child Development, 77, 1656-1667. [PDF]

Alonso-Arbiol, I., Shaver, P. R., Fraley, R. C., Oronoz, B., Unzurrunzaga, E., & Urizar, R. (2006). Structure of the Basque emotion lexicon. Cognition and Emotion, 20, 836-865.

Fraley, R. C., Niedenthal, P. M., Marks, M. J., Brumbaugh, C. C., & Vicary, A. (2006). Adult attachment and the perception of emotional expressions: Probing the hyperactivating strategies underlying anxious attachment. Journal of Personality, 74, 1163-1190. [PDF]

Brumbaugh, C. C., & Fraley, R. C. (2006). Transference and attachment: How do attachment patterns get carried forward from one relationship to the next? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 552-560. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Fazzari, D. A., Bonanno, G. A., & Dekel, S. (2006). Attachment and psychological adaptation in high exposure World Trade Center survivors. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 538-551. [PDF]

Brumbaugh, C. C., & Fraley, R. C. (2006). The evolution of attachment in romantic relationships. In M. Mikulincer & G. S. Goodman (Eds.), The dynamics of romantic love: Attachment, caregiving, and sex (pp. 71-101). NY: Guilford Press.

Marks, M. J., & Fraley, R.C. (2006). Confirmation bias and the sexual double standard. Sex Roles, 54, 19-26.

Tancredy, C. M., & Fraley, R. C. (2006). The nature of adult twin relationships: An attachment-theoretical perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 78-93. [PDF]

 2005

Fraley, R. C., Brumbaugh, C. C., & Marks, M. J. (2005). The evolution and function of adult attachment: A comparative and phylogenetic analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89, 731-746. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Marks, M. J. (2005). Quantitative methods in personality research. In B. Everett and D. Howell (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Behavioral Statistics (Vol. 3, pp. 1637-1641). New York: Wiley. [PDF]

Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., & Abela, J. R. Z. (2005). Daily depression and cognitions about stress: Evidence for a trait-like depressogenic cognitive style and the prediction of depressive symptoms in a prospective daily diary study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88, 673-685. [PDF]

Marks, M. J., & Fraley, R. C. (2005). The sexual double standard: Fact or fiction? Sex Roles, 52, 175-186. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Roberts, B. W. (2005). Patterns of continuity: A dynamic model for conceptualizing the stability of individual differences in psychological constructs across the life course. Psychological Review, 112, 60-74. [PDF]

Hankin, B. L., Fraley, R. C., Lahey, B. B., & Waldman, I. D. (2005). Is depression best viewed as a continuum or discrete category? A taxometric analysis of childhood and adolescent depression in a population-based sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 96-110. [PDF]

Alonso-Arbiol, I., Shaver, P. R., Fraley, R. C., Oronoz, B., Unzurrunzaga, E., & Urizar, R. (2005). Estructura prototípica del léxico emocional de la lengua vasca (Prototypical structure of Basque emotion lexicon). In E. Barberá et al. (Ed.). Motivos, emociones y procesos representacionales: De la teoría a la práctica (Motives, emotions and representative processes: From theory to practice) (pp. 411-420). Valencia, Spain: Fundación Universidad-Empresa de Valencia, ADEIT.

 2004

Fraley, R. C., & Brumbaugh, C. C. (2004). A dynamical systems approach to understanding stability and change in attachment security. In W. S. Rholes & J. A. Simpson (Eds.), Adult attachment : Theory, research, and clinical implications (pp. 86-132). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Bonanno, G. A. (2004). Attachment and loss: A test of three competing models on the association between attachment-related avoidance and adaptation to bereavement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 878-890. [PDF]

 2003

Fraley, R. C., & Spieker, S. J. (2003). Are infant attachment patterns continuously or categorically distributed? A taxometric analysis of strange situation behavior. Developmental Psychology, 39, 387-404.
[target article] [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Spieker, S. J. (2003). What are the differences between dimensional and categorical models of individual differences in attachment? Reply to Cassidy (2003), Cummings (2003), Sroufe (2003), and Waters and Beauchaine (2003). Developmental Psychology, 39, 423-429. [PDF]

 2002

Fraley, R. C. (2002). Introduction to the special issue: The psychodynamics of adult attachments - Bridging the gap between disparate research traditions. Attachment and Human Development, 4, 131-132. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C. (2002). Attachment stability from infancy to adulthood: Meta-analysis and dynamic modeling of developmental mechanisms. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6, 123-151. [PDF]

 2001

Shaver, P. R., Murdaya, U, & Fraley, R. C. (2001). Structure of the Indonesian emotion lexicon. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 4, 201-224. [PDF]

Robins, R. W., Fraley, R. C., Roberts, B. W., & Trzesniewski, K. (2001). A longitudinal study of personality change in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 69, 617-640. [PDF]

 1997 - 2000

Fraley, R. C., Garner, J. P., & Shaver, P. R. (2000). Adult attachment and the defensive regulation of attention and memory: The role of preemptive and postemptive processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 816-826. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2000). Adult romantic attachment: Theoretical developments, emerging controversies, and unanswered questions. Review of General Psychology, 4, 132-154. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Waller, N. G., & Brennan, K. A. (2000). An item response theory analysis of self-report measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 350-365. [PDF]

Shaver, P. R., & Fraley, R. C. (2000). Attachment theory and caregiving: An evaluation of Bell and Richard’s critique. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 109-114.

Fraley, R. C. (1999). Types or dimensions of relating: Taxometrics as a tool for the study of personal relationships. ISSPR Bulletin, 16 (1), 3-4. [PDF]

Crowell, J., Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1999). Measures of individual differences in adolescent and adult attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 434-465). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1999). Loss and bereavement: Attachment theory and recent controversies concerning "grief work" and the nature of detachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 735-759). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Airport separations: A naturalistic study of adult attachment dynamics in separating couples. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1198-1212. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., Davis, K. E., & Shaver, P. R. (1998). Dismissing-avoidance and the defensive organization of emotion, cognition, and behavior. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 249-279). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Waller, N. G. (1998). Adult attachment patterns: A test of the typological model. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 77-114). New York: Guilford Press. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1997). Adult attachment and the suppression of unwanted thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1080-1091. [PDF]

Fraley, R. C., & Davis, K. E. (1997). Attachment formation and transfer in young adults' close friendships and romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 4, 131-144. [PDF]